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Difference between Manual testing and Functional testing

Manual Testing: Testers manually perform test cases without the use of automated tools in manual testing, which is a hands-on testing methodology. Testers simulate user interactions, input test data, and observe the system’s responses. This method involves a tester’s intuition, creativity, and critical thinking to identify defects and provide valuable insights into the application’s usability and user experience. Manual testing can cover various aspects of testing, including functional, usability, exploratory, and regression testing.

Functional Testing: Functional testing focuses specifically on validating the functional aspects of a software application. It aims to ensure that each function or feature of the software performs as expected based on the defined requirements. Functional testing verifies whether the system meets functional specifications, performs desired operations accurately, and produces the correct outputs. It includes testing activities such as requirement-based testing, integration testing, system testing, and user acceptance testing.

Level of Automation:

Manual Testing: Manual testing is entirely performed by human testers without any automation tools. Testers manually interact with the software, input data, and verify outputs. They follow predefined test cases or perform exploratory testing to uncover defects. Although manual testing is time-consuming and labor-intensive, it offers flexibility and adaptability, making it suitable for scenarios where frequent changes are expected, user experience is a priority, or exploratory testing is necessary.

Functional Testing: Functional testing often involves the use of automation tools and frameworks to execute test cases. Test scripts are created using programming languages and automation tools to automate repetitive tasks, validate expected outcomes, and enhance the efficiency of the testing process. Automation frameworks allow testers to create reusable scripts, perform data-driven testing, and execute tests on multiple environments. Functional testing with automation enables faster execution, increased test coverage, and regression testing capabilities.

Test Design and Execution:

Manual Testing: In manual testing, test cases are designed and executed by human testers based on their expertise and understanding of the software requirements. Testers analyze the requirements, create test scenarios, and develop test cases. They manually execute the test cases step by step, record the results, and report any issues or observations. Manual testing provides the opportunity for exploratory testing, where testers can creatively explore the application and identify hidden defects.
Functional Testing: Functional testing involves creating test cases based on functional requirements and specifications. These test cases are typically designed to cover specific functionalities or features of the software. Testers define inputs, expected outputs, and test conditions for each test case. Automation scripts are then developed to execute these test cases repeatedly. Test execution reports and logs are generated automatically, providing detailed information on test coverage, pass/fail status, and any encountered errors.

Skill Requirements:

Manual Testing: Manual testing requires skilled testers who possess a strong understanding of the software under test, testing concepts, and the ability to think critically. Testers need to have good domain knowledge to identify potential issues and understand user perspectives. They must be able to create effective test cases, execute them accurately, and provide clear and concise bug reports. Skills such as exploratory testing, usability evaluation, and risk analysis are valuable in manual testing.
Functional Testing: Functional testing demands testers with proficiency in automation tools, scripting languages, and test automation frameworks. Testers need to be skilled in developing and maintaining automation scripts, executing tests using automation tools, and analyzing test results generated by these scripts. They should possess programming skills and have a deep understanding of the application architecture, testing frameworks, and industry best practices related to functional testing. Additionally, strong analytical and troubleshooting abilities are valuable in identifying the root causes of automation failures.

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