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Manual Testing

What is Manual Testing?

Manual testing is a process in which a tester prepares test cases and applies them to the application to find bugs, defects or issues, etc. in the application software without using any automation testing tools. The manual testing process requires a tester to play the role of end-user to find bugs or issues in the software manually. The tester uses features of the application to ensure the correct behavior of the application.
One of the most essential testing techniques is manual testing since it can identify both visible and hidden software defects. A defect is defined as the inconsistency between the output that was expected and the output that the software produced. After the developer fixed the defects, the tester received the product to retest.
Before doing any automation testing, manual testing should be done. Although, it requires a lot of time and effort. manual testing can be done without any knowledge of automation testing.

Why is manual testing required?

Before launching or delivering a product in the market, test engineers should perform testing manually because we cannot launch a product with bugs or defects in the market otherwise we would lose our customers. So, to avoid facing such kinds of problems one should have performed manual testing. However, manual testing does not ensure that the product is 100% defective free but it minimizes the risk of getting bugs or defects in the market.

Types of manual testing

  1. BLACK BOX TESTING: Black box testing is done by test engineers to check the functionality of the software or an application to find defects or bugs. Testers are not aware of the codes used behind the functionality of the application or software.
  2. WHITE BOX TESTING: White box testing is performed by developers to test the software or an application with the codes. codes are visible to developers in this kind of testing.
  3. GRAY BOX TESTING: Gray box testing is performed by test engineers who know coding as well as testing.
    How to perform manual testing:

    • First, read the documentation related to the application or software to understand it completely.
    • Analyze the required document to check whether it covers all the requirements of customers or clients.
    • Create a test case sheet as per the requirements.
    • Perform testing of applications or software to make a comparison between expected output and actual output to detect defects or bugs.
    • Report the detected issues, defects, or bugs to the developer.
    • After fixing bugs or defects, the developer hands over the product to the tester for retesting.
    • Once bugs are fixed, perform retesting according to failed test cases.


Manual testing is done by test engineers manually. Tester checks or tests the functionality of an application or software as per the requirements of the client or customer. Automation testing is done by test engineers using automation tools. The functionality of the application or software is tested by using automation tools.
Manual testing is less reliable as compared to automation testing because there is a possibility of human error. Automation testing is more reliable because testing is done with the help of test scripts and codes.
No script is required in this type of testing.
Reuse of test cases could be possible only when test cases are needed to be used once or twice.
It involves testing with the help of scripts and codes. Scripts written can be reused multiple times.
The execution of testing involves a lot of time and effort. Hence, time-consuming process The execution of this testing is faster. That’s why it is a time-saving process.
No investment is required as this testing is performed manually. Investments are required to be made in automation tools.
Test engineers are not required to have an understanding of programming languages. Test engineers are required to have an understanding of programming languages.
Mass execution of testing is not possible Mass execution of testing is possible.
No framework is needed while doing testing manually A proper framework is needed like a hybrid, keyword driven, etc.
It handles complex test cases. Automation testing handles simpler cases.

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