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testing

Purpose of Software Testing

Software testing is the process in which a program is run to find any errors or bugs present in it. It ensures that the program works correctly without any problems. Some of the main points to be considered for testing are listed below:

  • Finding issues that can initiate from errors in coding by developer
  • Ensuring the quality of the program
  • Prevention of any type of problem
  • Making sure that the program built meets the requirements of the customer

Black Box Software Testing

Black Box Testing is a method of testing in which tester is not aware of the coding or internal implementation part of the program. The tester can only give input and get output from a program and cannot have a view of the program structure.

Black Box Testing provides a user’s perspective. It can point to any inconsistencies with the requirements. Programing knowledge is not required by the tester for black box testing.

Example
If black box testing is to be performed on a website, the tester would need to check any errors in the functionality or UI of the website. The tester can ignore the HTML or any other programming language used for building that website. The tester will simply use the website in every possible scenario as a user can.

Whitebox Software Testing

The testing of the internal structure and design of a program is known as White Box Testing. The coding part is visible to the tester in white box testing. The main purpose of white box testing is to verify the flow of input and output to improve the design and usability, also to strengthen the security. Usually, white box testing is performed by developers. It is also known as clear box testing as the tester can see into the software’s inner working.

Example
An example of white box testing can be a simple calculator program that calculates the EMI of any amount with any rate of interest. The tester would look at the code of the program to verify that the formula to calculate is present correctly. The tester would require the knowledge of that particular programming language in which the program has been developed to verify that.

Blackbox Software Testing Types and Examples

Two fundamental types of black box testing are:

  1. Functional Testing

    In functional testing, the tester checks the functional requirement of the program. Tester checks all the functions of the program by providing input and comparing the actual output with the expected output.

    Types of functional testing:

    • Smoke testing
      Smoke testing checks whether the build is stable or not while running the main functionality of the software. It decides whether the software is ready for further testing or not. For example, testing the basic calculations of a simple calculator program.
    • Sanity testing
      The testing performed after a minor update or change in code is done is known as Sanity testing. It makes sure that changes made are performing in the right way and there are no issues. For example, the software was running perfectly but developers made some changes in the code. Sanity testing is done to make sure that changes made do not cause any problem.
    • Integration testing
      In Integration testing, individual units of code are combined together for testing. The purpose of this testing is to make sure that integrated units work fine. For example, a website has two features. One feature is adding text another is adding an image. Integration testing will be done to check that the features work correctly if both text and image are added at the same time.
    • System testing
      The testing in which the fully integrated version of a software is tested for validation is known as system testing. For example, checking GUI, functionality, and usability on an e-commerce website.
    • Regression testing

      The testing performed on existing functions of a program after the change of code in another function is known as regression testing. The purpose of regression testing is to ensure that the changes made do not have any effect on the existing features. For example, if an application has 2 features and changes were made to the second feature. The tester would check both features again to make sure that the changes made do not have any adverse effects.

    • User acceptance testing
      The testing that occurs at the final stage of a software development lifecycle is known as user acceptance testing. The user tests the software to check that it serves the purpose for which it has been developed. For example, if an online education portal was developed. A group of their students will perform their learning and exam-related tasks to see if the portal works correctly.
  2. Non-functional Testing

    All the non-functional aspects of testing are covered in this testing. These non-functional aspects improve the quality and performance of the program.

    Types of non-functional testing:

    • Usability testing
      As the name suggests, usability testing checks the difficulty level of the design of the software. A group of users is observed as they try to complete their tasks using the developed software. For example, the tester would check if correct error messages are displaying on software.
    • Load testing
      In order to observe the behaviour of the software under normal and peak conditions, load testing is performed. The application is tested for the expected load in actual usage. For example, the website is accessed by hundreds of users at the same time.
    • Performance testing
      The testing used to determine the speed, responsiveness, and stability of the network, software, system, or device while using the developed program is known as performance testing. For example, the tester would check is a website can be accessed at lower bandwidth. The website should not crash even at a lower bandwidth.
    • Compatibility testing
      Checking the capability of software to run on different system environments, networks, and configurations is called compatibility testing. For example, running the developed program on a system having 4GB RAM and then running the same program on a different computer system having 2GB RAM.
    • Stress testing
      Testing software beyond its limits of a normal environment is known as stress testing. Its purpose is to check the robustness of the software. For example, checking a web application on a huge number of connections and data load until it crashes.
    • Scalability testing
      Testing performed to check the ability of software to perform while the number of requests is scaled up or scaled-down. For example, the software was developed to handle a hundred connection requests. It will check if the number of connections could be increased or decreased according to the requirement.

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