Introduction to computer
A computer is defined as an electronic machine composed of hardware and software components. It is also described as an information processor that is instructed to carry out sequences of logical or mathematical operations via computer programming. Data is received through an input unit based on the instructions it is given and after it, the data is processed. The processed data is sent back through an output device. How does this all happen within a computer? Let’s discuss this in detail.
Working of a computer
All the processes, from raw data to accurate results happen in a specific manner. The data or information is taken by the computer as raw material, information is stored and then the computer processes the stored information. After that, it provides the result on the output end of the computer through an output device. It can be better understood by the following picture:
A computer works by changing information into binary numbers (0 and 1) and then uses simple mathematics to make decisions about how to rearrange those numbers into words or actions. It stores and operates on raw or processed information by storing it in a bit(short for binary digit) or multiple collections of bits.
To better understand we have to take a look at the basic components of a computer and how they work together.
Components of a Computer System
- Input unit
- Central Processing Unit
- Output Unit
Let’s discuss these components with their working one by one:
- Input unit:- Input unit devices allow a user to enter or submit the raw information, data, or control signals on the computer. Generally, Information is submitted in a language that a computer can’t understand directly. The main function of input devices is to carry data from the user to the control unit by converting the data in binary form. Some Examples of Input unit devices are; Keyboard, Mouse, scanner, touch screen, yoke, digital camera, microphone, etc.
- Central processing unit:- After receiving data from users, a computer system now has to process it according to the instructions provided. Here, it totally depends on a component called the central processing unit. The Central Processing Unit is further divided into the following three elements:
- Memory Unit
Once a user enters data using input devices, it is stored by the computer system in its memory unit. This unit is used for storing the information before and after processing. The memory unit has pre-programmed directions to further transmit this information to other parts of the CPU. There are two types of storage in the memory unit.
- RAM:- It is the primary memory storage of a computer, stands for Random Access memory. It is volatile memory storage that means data disappears after the power is disconnected.
- ROM:- Unlike RAM, ROM(Read-Only Memory) is non-volatile memory storage. It is secondary storage of memory that stores the data even after we turn off the computer.
The CPU accesses only the primary storage of memory via the input-output unit. The contents of secondary storage memories are first transferred to the main memory (RAM) and then accessed by CPU.
- Arithmetic and Logic Unit
Arithmetic operations are performed by this part of the CPU. It executes basic mathematical calculations like addition, subtraction, division, multiplication, etc and even executes logical functions like the comparison of data.
- Control Unit
This unit is the backbone of CPU and is responsible for coordinating between all components of a computer system. This unit collects data from input units and sends it to processing units. Further, it transmits processed data to output units for users.
- Memory Unit
- Output Unit:- Output Unit collects information from the CPU and then delivers it to the external device in the soft or hard processed form. The devices which are used to display the result of raw data as per the instructions to the user are called output devices. The Monitor, printer, and speakers are some common output devices.
The computer is one of the most complicated devices built by humans. It is really not necessary that all people have to learn about all the technical details but what is more important to know is what a computer is capable of doing. From a young child to a retired adult, computers open up a new world of discovery for everyone. Further, it opens up the whole world for travel, learning about anything that has happened in the past, or what the future may bring.
What is a computer?
A computer is defined as an electronic machine composed of hardware and software components. It is also described as an information processor that is instructed to carry out sequences of logical or mathematical operations via computer programming.
What are the basic components of a computer?
The basic components of a computer system are:
1. Input unit
2. Central Processing Unit
3. Output Unit
What is the function of output unit?
Output Unit collects information from the CPU and then delivers it to the external device in the soft or hard processed form.
What are some examples of input devices?
Some Examples of Input unit devices are; keyboard, mouse, scanner, touch screen, yoke, digital camera, and microphone.
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