About Selenium WebDriver
Selenium WebDriver is a free (open-source) tool that is used for test automation. It is licensed under Apache License 2.0. Selenium is a suite of tools that helps in automating only web applications.
Before proceeding, we should have a basic knowledge of Java or any other object-oriented programming language and we should be accomplished with the basics of testing concepts.
Selenium is a free (open-source) and portable automated software testing tool for testing web applications. It has the capabilities to operate across different browsers and operating systems. Selenium is not just a single tool but a set of tools that helps testers to automate web-based applications more efficiently.
Various Selenium tools are:-
- Selenium IDE
- Selenium RC
- Selenium WebDriver
- Selenium Grid
Merits of Selenium:-
- It is an open-source tool.
- Selenium supports various browsers.
- It supports various operating Environments like ( MS Windows, Linux )
- It Supports mobile devices.
- It supports various programming languages to write a Test script
- It supports parallel test Execution.
Demerits of Selenium:-
- It supports only web-based applications.
- Difficult to set up the environment.
- New features may not work properly.
- No default test report generation.
- No reliable technical support from anybody.
Selenium Remote Control was the main Selenium project that sustained for a long time before Selenium WebDriver (Selenium 2.0) came into existence. Selenium (RC) is hardly in use as WebDriver offers more powerful features, although, users can still continue to develop scripts by RC. It allows us to write automated web application UI tests with the help of programming languages such as Java, C#, Python, and PHP to create more complex tests such as reading and writing files, querying a database, and emailing test results.
Selenium RC comes in two parts.
- The Selenium Server launches and kills browsers. additionally, it interprets and executes the Selenese commands. It also acts as an HTTP proxy by intercepting and verifying HTTP messages passed between the browser and also the application under test.
- Client libraries that provide an interface between every one of the programming languages like (Java, C#, Python, and PHP) and Selenium-RC Server.
Selenium Grid is a part of the selenium suite that distributes the tests across multiple physical or virtual machines so that we can execute scripts in parallel (simultaneously). It dramatically accelerates the testing process across browsers and across platforms by giving us quick and accurate feedback. Selenium Grid allows us to execute multiple examples of WebDriver for Selenium Remote Control tests in parallel which uses the same code base, hence the code needs NOT to be present on the system they execute. The selenium-server standalone package includes Hub, WebDriver, and Selenium RC to execute the scripts in the grid.
Selenium Grid has a Hub and a Node.
- Hub – The hub can also be understood as a server that acts as the central point where the tests would be triggered. A Selenium Grid has only one Hub and it is launched on a single machine one time.
- Node – Nodes are the Selenium examples that are attached to the Hub which execute the tests. There can be one or more nodes in a grid that can be of any Operating System and can contain any of the Selenium supported browsers.
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